Other authors study a slow force response to stress, thus complementing one another [ 20 , ]. Furthermore a number of authors describe stretch-induced alterations in action potential duration, cAMP, or NO signaling [ 16 , , ]. These issues are discussed at different levels — whole heart, multicellular preparations, and isolated cardiomyocytes [ 20 , ]. Works under discussion give impetus to further research in the field of cardiac physiology and clinical cardiology [ 20 , ]. Atrial arrhythmia accompanies various heart diseases. A mechanical factor definitely participates in the development of atrial fibrillation.
Atrial dilation often results in the development of atrial fibrillation. But the mechanism of fibrillation origins is not completely clear. The role of mechano-electrical feedback for arrhythmia was studied in atrial and ventricular myocardium. This problem remains an acute subject of research at present and this book presents two experimental models, one of which studied the impact of mechanical factor at the level of the whole heart under independently changed pressure in various cavities [ ]. In this model, basic electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocardium change dependent on pressure.
The other model considers the role of cholinenergic factors in the development of atrial fibrillation in vivo and demonstrates that an increased tone of the vagus nerves can play a role in developing atrial fibrillation [ 54 ]. Mechanosensitivity and mechanosensitive ion channels were studied by various methods in different structures of the nervous system from receptors to nerve cells [ 13 , 19 , 86 , , , , , , , , ].
The basic problem is how the surrounding mechanical factors affecting the membrane are transformed into various biochemical responses at the cellular level [ ], that regulate the growth and differentiation of cells. Mechanosensitive cation channels are discussed in leech nerve cells and their possible role in neurons is considered [ ]. Leech neuron channels are similar to typical mechanosensitive cation channels of vertebrates' hair cells.
Neuron membrane deformation in leech is a good model for studying crosstalk at the nerve cell level. The problem of pain is important in clinical conditions but specific mechanisms involved in response to pain stimulus are not understood completely. There is need for further research of different responses of afferent and efferent neurons participating in the origins of pain perception.
The present book discusses new results relating to mechanisms of pain.
An important cell type connected with mechanosensitivity are the primary afferent nociceptors in the pain perception pathway [ 40 ]. The data under discussion allow a better understanding of visceral and somatic pains. Mechanical factor can also modulate the activity of endocrine cells [ ]. This review summarizes the basis for stimulus-secretion coupling and recent developments from the tilapia PRL cell model, in the light of other cell types and model systems.
Mechanosensitive channels of skeletal muscle are studied in detail [ 32 , 43 , 44 , 50 , 57 , 85 , , ]. Of major interest is the research on mechano-sensitive ion channels in skeletal muscle from normal and dystrophic mice see [ 43 , 57 ]. The achievements of recent years are summarized in the book as review [ ].
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The review considers the mdx mouse, a deletion mutant that lacks full-length dystrophin, which has been used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in mechanosensitive channel gating [ ]. The book review [ ] considers the MSC of smooth muscle and discusses their role in self-regulation of circulation and capillary hydrostatic pressure in various organs. Smooth muscles in small arteries and arterioles contribute greatly to autoregulation.
Smooth muscles of the vessel walls contribute to the mechanism of autoregulation independently of endothelium and nerve influences and the autoregulation mechanism can change with diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. The review discusses transfer mechanisms at the cellular level. Additional details of this mechanism as well as the possible contributions of alternative pathways are the subjects of current investigations. Involvement of various channels is discussed [ ]. Mechanical factors play an important role in forming bones and regeneration of osseous tissue.
Mechanical factors regulate osteogenesis. Bone cells respond to mechanical impact but the process of transferring the mechanical stimulus is not clear yet. At the same time a lot of signal pathways have been shown able to take part in the process of mechanotransduction. Researching the impact of pressure on bone tissue is important not only for clinical conditions, but also for such conditions as prolonged weightlessness. There are a number of studies in regard to that respect. Bone remodeling is the continuous turnover of bone matrix and mineral by bone resorption activity of osteoclasts and formation activity of osteoblasts in the adult skeleton, i.
Clonal UMR cells derived from rat osteogenic sarcoma possess an 18 pS SA channel capable of conducting barium and calcium into the cell [ 39 ]. This channel is voltage insensitive, but its susceptibility to membrane tension suggests a role in volume regulation or as a stimulus for bone metabolism in response to mechanical stress.
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The finding of three types of SA channels in human osteoblast-like G osteosarcoma cells [ 30 ] lends weight to this suggestion. Mechanosensitive K Ca channels have also been reported in osteoblast cell lines [ 31 ]. Data from recent years describe signal transduction pathways and effects of mechanical strain in osteoblastic cells [ ].
Mechanical strain plays a crucial role in bone growth, remodeling, and repair, where mechanosensing cells, most likely osteoblasts and osteocytes, direct these processes [ ]. Studying the mechanosensitivity of chondrocytes, cells that respond to a wide variety of mechanical factors, is extremely important [ ].
There is considerable evidence that ion channels residing in the plasma membrane of chondrocytes and osteoblasts are involved in the transduction of mechanical signals [ ]. The enigmatic role of the epithelial sodium channel in articular chondrocytes and osteoblasts are considered and issues of mechanotransduction, sodium transport, or extracellular sodium sensing are discussed [ ].
Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues.
In principle, the articles presented in this book prove that the issue of mechanoelectric feedback considering transformation of mechanical signals into electrical one has grown into a global field of investigating with special respect to the pathways activated by stretch. This very first edition does not include all the articles devoted to mechanosensitive tissues, but in the next edition, we plan to present more detailed reviews in varied fields of cell and tissue research.
Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Kamkin A, Kiseleva I, editors. Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues. Moscow: Academia; Show details Kamkin A, Kiseleva I, editors. Moscow: Academia ; Search term. Corresponding author: Andre Kamkin, M.
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Department of Fundamental and Applied Physiology. Russian State Medical University. Ostrovitjanova Str. Introduction In the evolution process, mechanical stress is most ancient irritant. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction Genetic and molecular data obtained from the studies of model organisms such as the bacterium Escherichia coli, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans , the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse help to distinguish between classes of mechanically gated ion channels and interacting molecules, which are likely parts of the mechanotransducing apparatus.
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Mechanosensitivity in the heart The heart is sensitive to mechanical deformation. All the data presented allow to tackle the problem of arrhythmia originating mechanisms. Mechanosensitivity in the nervous system Mechanosensitivity and mechanosensitive ion channels were studied by various methods in different structures of the nervous system from receptors to nerve cells [ 13 , 19 , 86 , , , , , , , , ]. Mechanosensitivity in skeletal muscle Mechanosensitive channels of skeletal muscle are studied in detail [ 32 , 43 , 44 , 50 , 57 , 85 , , ].
Bone tissue, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts Mechanical factors play an important role in forming bones and regeneration of osseous tissue.
Conclusion and perspectives In principle, the articles presented in this book prove that the issue of mechanoelectric feedback considering transformation of mechanical signals into electrical one has grown into a global field of investigating with special respect to the pathways activated by stretch. References 1. Circ Res. Bainbridge FA. The influence of venous filling upon the rate of the heart. J Physical London.
enterblack.com/4316.php FEBS Letters. Baumgarten CM Cell volume-sensitive ion channels and transporters in cardiac myocytes. Swelling-activated chloride channels in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. In: Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues. Multiple mechanosensitive ion channels from E. J Membr Biol. A patch-clamp study of inner and outer membranes and of contact zones of E. Pressure activated channels are localized in the inner membrane. Tarantula peptide inhibits atrial fibrillation. J Gen Physiol. Stretch-activated cation channels of leech neurons: Characterization and role in neurite outgrowth.
Eur J Neurosci. Do stretch-induced changes in intracellular calcium modify the electrical activity of cardiac muscle?