Here we characterize synergies and trade-offs between efforts to achieve SDG7 and delivery of the Agenda as a whole. There is an urgent need to better organize, connect and extend this evidence, to help all actors work together to achieve sustainable development. Brew-Hammond, A.
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Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns.
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Connecting the sustainable development goals by their energy inter-linkages
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treatise for energy law | The Journal of World Energy Law & Business | Oxford Academic
Carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring . All the variables are transformed into natural logarithms. The time series properties of the variables or the existence of unit root is checked through employing Augmented Dickey-Fuller ADF unit root test [ 27 , 28 ].
The results of ADF test see Table 5 suggests the existence of unit root however the unit root of all the variables is removed at first difference, that is, all three variables are integrated of order 1. All variables are stationary at 1 st difference, meaning thereby, we can apply the Johansen cointegration test to analyze the long run association between these variables.
Johansen's cointegration test is determining that of the number of cointegration vectors at the first r where we fail to reject the null hypothesis. The results of the Johansen cointegration tests based on ECM using an optimal lag length of two are provided in Table 6. The results from both maximum Eigen-value tests and the trace indicate that cointegration exists among the variables in the system.
In this situation when long run relationship cointegrating relationships exists among variables, ECM specification is appropriate. Furthermore, the residuals of the ECM specification are white noise . Table 7 presents the results of ECM based Granger causality tests.
Equation of each of the variables is presented in columns. For each of the variables, there exists one channel of causality at least: either the short-run Granger causality which can be verified through joint significance tests F-test of the lagged-differenced coefficients or the long-run causality that can be confirmed through statistically significant lagged error-correction term t-statistics. The coefficient of lag of ECT is significant which implies that past equilibrium errors affect current outcomes.
In this case, energy insecurity Granger cause socio-economic condition and environment in the short run but socio-economic and environment does not Granger cause energy insecurity in the short run. The error terms are statistically significant. The first one indicates that social economic conditions and energy insecurity jointly cause environment damages in the long run. Second error term is indicating that environment and energy insecurity jointly cause socio-economic condition in the long run. These conditions do not hold reversely in the long run.
P-values are in parentheses. Global agenda to meet the energy security is primary concern of the world today. During the last four decades, the world has changed its focus from imported expensive energy resources to cheaper renewable sources that also bring socio-economic and environmental sustainability. Diversification of energy resources along with optimal utilization of indigenous resources must be a part of national strategy.
Instead of focusing on the indigenously available energy resources, Pakistan has increased reliance on imported hydrocarbons for production of electricity which does not has environmental consequences only but also results in lowering competitiveness and increasing social hazard. Even during the last few years, heavy investments on coal and LNG power projects have been witnessed to mitigate the electricity shortage in the country.
With the on-going policy of increasing reliance on imported energy sources, it would be hard to achieve sustainable Development Goal 7 and Pakistan's Vision , that is, to ensure reliable, affordable and accessible energy. Despite abundant solar and wind resources, the unwanted electricity shortfall has affected Pakistan's economy since The increase in demand for energy is natural due to increase in economic activity and population which call for optimizing the energy mix through increased reliance on hydroelectricity, indigenous coal, solar, wind and biomass.
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It will ensure lesser volatility and lower electricity price. Ensuring energy security is also important for short run and long run socio-economic and environmental sustainability. There exists long run association among energy security risk, environment and socio-economic conditions. Socio-economic conditions and energy security risk jointly cause environmental damages in the long run. Environment and Energy security risk also jointly cause deterioration in socio-economic conditions. Through employing Granger Causality F-test based on Error Correction Model, short terms causality of energy security risk to environment and socio-economic conditions is also evident.
This policy will ensure better environmental and socio-economic conditions for the future generations and fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goal 7 would not be a difficult task then.
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Moreover, the analysis shows that the on-going demand-supply gap of electricity would end before the start of but it will not change the fuel mix to produce electricity. Therefore, there is need to develop a long run energy policy which may ensure energy security in the country. Considering the availability of solar radiations for production of electricity, it is suggested that government may provide off-grid and on-grid solutions to the community to fulfil their demand of electricity.
Microfinance models for installation of solar panels at household level can help to mitigate the growing demand through off-grid electricity production. Shahzada M.
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Naeem Nawaz, Shahzad Alvi: Conceived and designed the experiments; Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
We would like to thank anonymous reviewers and Mr. Imtiaz Ahmed for their helpful comments and constructive feedback. We are thankful to Global Energy Institute, U. Chamber of Commerce for providing us the Energy Security risk data. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Heliyon v.